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Issue #39/2017
28 September 2017

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New This Week

  1. Case(s) of the Week

    1. ROSSARIN NUEKAEW v. PP [2017] 8 CLJ 503

  2. Latest Cases

    1. Legal Network Series

    2. CLJ 2017 Volume 8 (Part 5)

  3. Articles

    1. LNS Article(s)

    2. CLJ Article(s)

  4. Legislation Highlights

    1. Principal Acts

    2. Amending Acts

    3. PU(A)

    4. PU(B)

    5. Legislation Alert

CASE(S) OF THE WEEK

ROSSARIN NUEKAEW v. PP [2017] 8 CLJ 503
FEDERAL COURT, PUTRAJAYA
ZULKEFLI AHMAD MAKINUDIN PCA, AZAHAR MOHAMED FCJ, ZAHARAH IBRAHIM FCJ,
BALIA YUSOF WAHI FCJ, AZIAH ALI FCJ
[CRIMINAL APPEAL NO: 05-286-12-2015(K)]
14 AUGUST 2017

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Appeal – Appeal against conviction and sentence – Accused person charged and convicted for trafficking in 16,841g of cannabis – Offence under s. 39B(1)(a) of Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 – Accused person sentenced to death – Whether conviction and sentence safe

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Statements – Witness statements – Application of s. 402B of Criminal Procedure Code – Whether written statement to be admitted as evidence in court must be read aloud at trial – Whether court could direct otherwise for written statement not to be read aloud at trial – Whether conditions to be complied with under sub-s. 402B(6) directory or mandatory – Whether non-compliance with conditions under sub-s. 402B(6) curable under s. 422 of Criminal Procedure Code


LATEST CASES

Legal Network Series

[2016] 1 LNS 866

KOTA BUMIMAS SDN BHD v. MANJUNG AQUATIC SDN BHD

COMPANY LAW: Shares - Preference shares - Claim for redemption price for subscription of preference shares - Subscription agreement states preference shares liable to be redeemed at option of plaintiff at any time after first issue date - Defendant refused to pay redemption price despite delivery of redemption notice - Whether plaintiff was entitled to claim for redemption price - Whether issue of condition precedent was relevant - Whether redemption notice was valid

[2016] 1 LNS 1728

GANESAN KESAVAN & SATU LAGI lwn. ESWARAN I BALOO

LALULINTAS JALAN: Kecuaian - Kemalangan jalan raya - Penentuan liabiliti - Perlanggaran antara motortreler dan motorsikal - Kewujudan satu versi sahaja - Penggantungan kepada keterangan senyap - Impak kesan brek tayar motortreler adalah dalam jarak 26.50 meter - Kesan brek menyerong ke kiri - Sama ada motortreler dibawa dengan kelajuan yang tinggi - Sama ada motortreler telah memasuki laluan sah motorsikal - Sama ada terdapat sumbang cuai di pihak penunggang motorsikal - Sama ada pemandu motortreler bertanggungan 100% cuai

GANTI RUGI: Rayuan - Rayuan terhadap awad - Mahkamah bicara memberikan gantirugi kepada kecederaan 'closed fracture right tibula' - Laporan pakar hanya menyatakan kecederaan 'closed fracture proximal right tibia' - Sama ada terdapat kesilapan dalam menimbang awad

[2016] 1 LNS 1734

MAJLIS PERBANDARAN SUBANG JAYA lwn. JAKS RESOURCES BERHAD & SATU LAGI

UNDANG-UNDANG PENTADBIRAN: Semakan kehakiman - Certiorari - Pembatalan keputusan Lembaga Rayuan Negeri Selangor ('Lembaga Rayuan') - Lembaga Rayuan membenarkan rayuan terhadap keputusan yang menolak permohonan kebenaran merancang - Permohonan kebenaran merancang ditolak kerana ketiadaan pematuhan syarat-syarat pihak berkuasa tempatan - Sama ada keputusan Lembaga Rayuan adalah berlandaskan undang-undang, rasional dan betul dari segi prosedur - Sama ada keputusan Lembaga Rayuan bercanggah dengan Akta Perancang Bandar dan Desa 1976

[2017] 1 LNS 354

JEMAAH PENGURUSAN TADIKA v. PENGARAH JABATAN PENDIDIKAN NEGERI JOHOR & ORS

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: Judicial review - Certiorari - Principles and procedures - Absence of live issue and subject matter - Application to quash decision of Assistant Registrar of Institute of Teacher Education in issuing Form F pursuant to s. 81 of Education Act 1996 - Issue on validity of impugned Form F - Form F expired at time of hearing - Whether court could make any judicial pronouncement in respect of impugned Form F which had expired - Whether there was any live issue for adjudication - Whether judicial review application ought to be allowed

[2017] 1 LNS 587

MUZIADI MUKHTAR v. PIHAK BERKUASA TATATERTIB MAJLIS PERBANDARAN SEBERANG PERAI & ANOR

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: Judicial review - Certiorari - Application by officer of local authority challenging dismissal from service - Application to quash decision of statutory committee and local authority - Inordinate delay in taking disciplinary action - Absence of service of notice of show cause, warning or suspension - Denial of natural justice - Whether dismissal was lawful - Whether service of show cause notice was mandatory - Whether applicant was accorded a reasonable opportunity to be heard - Whether applicant ought to be given reasonable opportunity to explain his position and predicament to respondent - Whether there was procedural impropriety on part of respondent


CLJ 2017 Volume 8 (Part 5)

FEDERAL COURT

Hong Yik Trading v. Liziz Plantation Sdn Bhd
Arifin Zakaria CJ, Ahmad Maarop, Hasan Lah, Zainun Ali, Abu Samah Nordin FCJJ
(Contract - Agreement - Construction and clearing of land - Claim for works done) [2017] 8 CLJ 491 [FC]

Rossarin Nuekaew v. PP
Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin PCA, Azahar Mohamed, Zaharah Ibrahim, Balia Yusof Wahi, Aziah Ali FCJJ
(Criminal Procedure - Trafficking in dangerous drugs - Appeal against conviction and sentence) [2017] 8 CLJ 503 [FC]

COURT OF APPEAL

Allianz General Insurance Malaysia v. KL Chan & Associates
Rohana Yusuf, Prasad Sandosham Abraham, Mary Lim JJCA
(Insurance - Repudiation of policy - Whether insurance company wrongfully repudiated policy) [2017] 8 CLJ 517 [CA]

G Balan Govindasamy v. Lee Moi Moi & Ors And Another Appeal
Vernon Ong Lam Kiat, Abdul Rahman Sebli, Asmabi Mohamad JJCA
(Contract; Land Law; Legal Profession; Tort - Sale of land - Sale agreement entered with fraudster - Land search showed that fraudster was registered proprietor - Money held by solicitor as stakeholder released to fraudster - Whether Registrar of Titles and State Governments negligent in not maintaining proper records - Whether solicitor breached duties as stakeholder) [2017] 8 CLJ 530 [CA]

Infoline Sdn Bhd v. Benjamin Lim Keong Hoe
Rohana Yusuf, Idrus Harun, Mary Lim JJCA
(Civil Procedure - Discovery - Trust deed - Applicant removed as beneficiary under trust - Whether applicant entitled to have sight of trust deed after removal as beneficiary) [2017] 8 CLJ 554 [CA]

HIGH COURT

Khoirul Yahaya v. Lembaga Pencegahan Jenayah & Anor
Vazeer Alam Mydin Meera J
(Criminal Procedure; Constitutional Law; Preventive Detention - Application for habeas corpus - Whether there was infringement of art. 151 of Federal Constitution - Whether detention flawed and unlawful) [2017] 8 CLJ 577 [HC]

Lo Man Heng v. Bursa Malaysia Securities Bhd
Hanipah Farikullah J
(Company Law - Directors - Duties - Failure to announce quarterly reports and annual audited accounts) [2017] 8 CLJ 596 [HC]

SUBJECT INDEX

CIVIL PROCEDURE

Discovery - Inspection of documents - Application for - Trust deed - Applicant removed as beneficiary under trust - Whether applicant entitled to have sight of trust deed after removal as beneficiary - Relevancy and importance of documents - Whether discovery necessary in order for applicant to seek proper legal advice - Whether ingredients for application for discovery proved
Infoline Sdn Bhd v. Benjamin Lim Keong Hoe
(Rohana Yusuf, Idrus Harun, Mary Lim JJCA) [2017] 8 CLJ 554 [CA]

COMPANY LAW

Directors - Duties - Failure to announce quarterly reports and annual audited accounts - Company failed to obtain management accounts of subsidiary for consolidation - Company imposed with public reprimand and fine - Whether shareholder of subsidiary could be held responsible for decision of subsidiary's board not to furnish management accounts to parent company - Companies Act 1965, s. 166A
Lo Man Heng v. Bursa Malaysia Securities Bhd
(Hanipah Farikullah J) [2017] 8 CLJ 596 [HC]

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

Fundamental liberties - Preventive detention - Application for habeas corpus - Whether applicant informed of ground for detention - Whether there was infringement of art. 151 of Federal Constitution
Khoirul Yahaya v. Lembaga Pencegahan Jenayah & Anor
(Vazeer Alam Mydin Meera J) [2017] 8 CLJ 577 [HC]

CONTRACT

Agreement - Construction and clearing of land - Claim for works done - Whether appellant failed to complete works as per contract - Whether there was damage to land - Issue of whether damage caused by appellant and not by monsoon rain - Onus of proof - Whether on respondent - Whether burden discharged by respondent - Whether appellant entitled to claim
Hong Yik Trading v. Liziz Plantation Sdn Bhd
(Arifin Zakaria CJ, Ahmad Maarop, Hasan Lah, Zainun Ali, Abu Samah Nordin FCJJ) [2017] 8 CLJ 491 [FC]

Agreement - Sale and purchase agreement - Sale of land - Fraud - Purchasers entered into agreement with fraudster who claimed to be registered proprietor of land - Solicitor acted on behalf of fraudster with warrant to act - Land search showed that fraudster was registered proprietor - Money held by solicitor as stakeholder released to fraudster - Whether solicitors, Registrar of Titles and State Government negligent - Apportionment of liability of negligent parties
G Balan Govindasamy v. Lee Moi Moi & Ors And Another Appeal
(Vernon Ong Lam Kiat, Abdul Rahman Sebli, Asmabi Mohamad JJCA) [2017] 8 CLJ 530 [CA]

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Appeal - Appeal against conviction and sentence - Accused person charged and convicted for trafficking in 16,841g of cannabis - Offence under s. 39B(1)(a) of Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 - Accused person sentenced to death - Whether conviction and sentence safe
Rossarin Nuekaew v. PP
(Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin PCA, Azahar Mohamed, Zaharah Ibrahim, Balia Yusof Wahi, Aziah Ali FCJJ) [2017] 8 CLJ 503 [FC]

Habeas corpus - Preventive detention - Application for habeas corpus - Allegation that detention flawed and unlawful - Whether applicant informed of grounds for detention - Whether there was inordinate delay in bringing applicant before inquiry officer - Whether findings of inquiry officer explained to applicant - Whether quorum for sitting of Prevention of Crime Board in compliance with statutory provisions - Whether there was infringement of art. 151 of Federal Constitution - Whether there was non-compliance of relevant provisions of Prevention of Crime Act 1959 - Prevention of Crime Act 1959, ss. 6, 7B, 9, 10(2), 19A(1) & 23
Khoirul Yahaya v. Lembaga Pencegahan Jenayah & Anor
(Vazeer Alam Mydin Meera J) [2017] 8 CLJ 577 [HC]

Statements - Witness statements - Application of s. 402B of Criminal Procedure Code - Whether written statement to be admitted as evidence in court must be read aloud at trial - Whether court could direct otherwise for written statement not to be read aloud at trial - Whether conditions to be complied with under sub-s. 402B(6) directory or mandatory - Whether non-compliance with conditions under sub-s. 402B(6) curable under s. 422 of Criminal Procedure Code
Rossarin Nuekaew v. PP
(Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin PCA, Azahar Mohamed, Zaharah Ibrahim, Balia Yusof Wahi, Aziah Ali FCJJ) [2017] 8 CLJ 503 [FC]

INSURANCE

Policy - Indemnity - Claims - Repudiation of policy - Whether insurance company wrongfully repudiated policy for non-disclosure of material facts - Whether disclosure had to be made once there was intimation or circumstances giving rise to a claim - Whether insured aware of potential claims at point of entering insurance contract - Whether insured complied with requirement of giving notice in writing of any claims made against him - Whether there was implied permission given to insured to enter into settlement agreement with suing party - Whether insured entitled to be indemnified pursuant to terms of policy
Allianz General Insurance Malaysia v. KL Chan & Associates
(Rohana Yusuf, Prasad Sandosham Abraham, Mary Lim JJCA) [2017] 8 CLJ 517 [CA]

LAND LAW

Sale and purchase of land - Fraud - Purchasers entered into agreement with fraudster who claimed to be registered proprietor of land - Land search showed that fraudster was registered proprietor - Money held by solicitor as stakeholder released to fraudster - Whether Registrar of Titles and State Governments negligent in issuing original issue document of titles and in not maintaining proper records of transfer of lands
G Balan Govindasamy v. Lee Moi Moi & Ors And Another Appeal
(Vernon Ong Lam Kiat, Abdul Rahman Sebli, Asmabi Mohamad JJCA) [2017] 8 CLJ 530 [CA]

LEGAL PROFESSION

Duty of care - Negligence - Sale of land - Purchasers entered into agreement with fraudster who claimed to be registered proprietor of land - Solicitor acted on behalf of fraudster with warrant to act - Land search showed that fraudster was registered proprietor - Money held by solicitor as stakeholder released to fraudster - Whether solicitor had given implied undertaking to purchasers that he had authority to act for true owner of land - Whether solicitor breached warranty of authority to act for true owner of land - Whether solicitor breached duties as stakeholder - Whether solicitor for purchasers negligent in failing to discharge duty as reasonably-skilled conveyancing lawyer
G Balan Govindasamy v. Lee Moi Moi & Ors And Another Appeal
(Vernon Ong Lam Kiat, Abdul Rahman Sebli, Asmabi Mohamad JJCA) [2017] 8 CLJ 530 [CA]

PREVENTIVE DETENTION

Detention - Detention order - Application for habeas corpus - Whether procedure for detention complied with - Whether there was infringement of art. 151 of Federal Constitution - Whether there was non-compliance of relevant provisions of Prevention of Crime Act 1959 - Whether detention flawed and unlawful - Prevention of Crime Act 1959, ss. 6, 7B, 9, 10(2), 19A(1) & 23
Khoirul Yahaya v. Lembaga Pencegahan Jenayah & Anor
(Vazeer Alam Mydin Meera J) [2017] 8 CLJ 577 [HC]

TORT

Negligence - Professional negligence - Sale and purchase agreement - Sale of land - Purchasers entered into agreement with fraudster who claimed to be registered proprietor of land - Land search showed that fraudster was registered proprietor - Money held by solicitor as stakeholder released to fraudster - Whether solicitors, Registrar of Titles and State Government negligent - Apportionment of liability of negligent parties
G Balan Govindasamy v. Lee Moi Moi & Ors And Another Appeal
(Vernon Ong Lam Kiat, Abdul Rahman Sebli, Asmabi Mohamad JJCA) [2017] 8 CLJ 530 [CA]


ARTICLES

LNS Article(s)

  1. COGNITIVE BIASES: 15 MORE TO THINK ABOUT [Read excerpt]
    by: LESLIE CUTHBERT* [2017] 1 LNS(A) lxxxi

  2. [2017] 1 LNS(A) lxxxi
    logo
    UNITED KINGDOM

    COGNITIVE BIASES: 15 MORE TO THINK ABOUT
    by
    LESLIE CUTHBERT*

    In Lydia Seymour's article in the Spring 2014 edition of Tribunals, she explained about a key unconscious bias known as 'confirmation bias'. In the Autumn 2015 edition, I then described about the risks involved in being overconfident. However, these are only two of the many cognitive biases that exist. Here are 15 other common cognitive, or unconscious, biases that we are all prone to falling foul of whether as witness, party or decision-maker.

    1) Anchoring. This involves people being over-reliant on the first piece of information that they receive. For example, if deciding how much money to award if initially given the sum of £10,000 the average amount awarded is likely to be higher than if the initial sum requested was £3,000.

    . . .

    * Leslie Cuthbert, judge in the First-tier Tribunal (Health, Education and Social Care), Tribunals, Spring 2016. Published with kind permission of the Judicial Communications Office, Judiciary of England and Wales (https://www.judiciary.gov. uk/wp-content/uploads/ 2017/03/cuthbert-15-cognitive-biases-autumn-2016.pdf).


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  3. HAK-HAK ISTERI MENURUT ENAKMEN UNDANG-UNDANG KELUARGA ISLAM NEGERI MELAKA 2002 [Read excerpt]
    by: ABDUL HALIM BIN ZULKIFLI (PH.D)* [2017] 1 LNS(A) lxxxiii

  4. [2017] 1 LNS(A) lxxxiii
    logo
    MALAYSIA

    HAK-HAK ISTERI MENURUT ENAKMEN UNDANG-UNDANG
    KELUARGA ISLAM NEGERI MELAKA 2002

    by
    ABDUL HALIM BIN ZULKIFLI (PH.D)*

    Abstrak

    Perkahwinan merupakan sesuatu yang sangat dituntut oleh Islam. Dengan ikatan perkahwinan, pasangan suami isteri telah mempunyai kewajipan dan tanggungjawab tertentu yang mesti dilaksanakan menurut peruntukan undang-undang. Sekiranya tanggungjawab tersebut tidak ditunaikan, tindakan undang-undang akan dilaksanakan sekiranya terdapat aduan dan bukti yang meyakinkan. Seorang isteri juga mempunyai tanggungjawab dan hak tertentu yang mesti dilaksanakan dan diperolehi dari suami setelah wujudnya perkahwinan yang sah antara pasangan tersebut. Dalam artikel ini akan dibincangkan hak-hak isteri yang telah diperuntukkan menurut Enakmen Undang-undang Keluarga Islam Negeri Melaka 2002 (EUKINM 2002).

    Kata kunci: Hak, enakmen, undang-undang, keluarga.

    . . .

    * Fakulti Tamadun Islam, UTM, 81310 Skudai, Johor.emel:halim-zulkifli@utm.my.


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CLJ Article(s)

  1. LAW OF HANDCUFFS [Read excerpt]
    by: DR MOHAMAD ISMAIL MOHAMAD YUNUS*
    SHAMSHINA MOHAMAD HANIFA**
    [2017] 8 CLJ i

  2. [2017] 8 CLJ i
    logo
    MALAYSIA

    LAW OF HANDCUFFS
    by
    DR MOHAMAD ISMAIL MOHAMAD YUNUS*
    SHAMSHINA MOHAMAD HANIFA**

    Abstract

    The application of handcuffs by enforcement agencies especially police force has drawn heated arguments and adverse attention of the public. The public complained and criticised the use of handcuffs by the police when effecting arrests or while escorting the accused person to court for hearings. Some public bore the view that, in most instances, the use of handcuffs is unnecessary and amounts to an abuse of power. The controversy surrounding the use of handcuffs in restraining a yet-to-be convicted person stems from the general rule that 'no man is guilty until proven guilty'. Thus, the legal issue pertaining to the application of handcuffs by police personnel is purposely chosen to examine the appropriate moment for the application of handcuffs by looking into the legal provisions under the relevant laws and the judicial decisions as well as the standard operating procedure ('SOP') employed by the Royal Malaysia Police Force.

    . . .

    * Senior Assistant Professor, Department of Legal Practice, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws (AIKOL), IIUM

    ** Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Law, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws (AIKOL), IIUM


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LEGISLATION HIGHLIGHTS

Principal Acts

Number Title In force from Repealing
ACT 792 Sexual Offences Against Children Act 2017 10 July 2017 [PU(B) 340/2017] -
ACT 791 Tourism Tax Act 2017 1 August 2017 [PU(B) 398/2017] - Parts I, II, IV and X, and sections 8 and 9; 1 September 2017 [PU(B) 398/2017] - Parts V, VI, VII, VIII and IX, and sections 6 and 7 -
ACT 790 Courts (Modes of Commencement of Civil Actions) Act 2017 15 July 2017 [PU(B) 341/2017] -
ACT 789 Self-Employment Social Security Act 2017 13 June 2017 [PU(B) 299/2017] -
ACT 788 Civil Aviation Authority of Malaysia Act 2017 Not Yet In Force -

Amending Acts

Number Title In force from Principal/Amending Act No
ACT A1538 Domestic Violence (Amendment) Act 2017 Not Yet In Force ACT 521
ACT A1537 Strategic Trade (Amendment) Act 2017 8 September 2017 [PU(B) 433/2017] ACT 708
ACT A1536 Penal Code (Amendment) Act 2017 1 September 2017 [PU(B) 410/2017] ACT 574
ACT A1535 Private Higher Educational Institutions (Amendment) Act 2017 Not Yet In Force ACT 555
ACT A1534 Bankruptcy (Amendment) Act 2017 Not Yet In Force ACT 360

PU(A)

Number Title Date of Publication In force from Principal/ Amending Act No
PU(A) 269/2017 Employees Provident Fund (Amendment) Rules 2017 26 September 2017 27 September 2017 PU(A) 493/1991
PU(A) 268/2017 Loans Guarantee (Bodies Corporate) (Remission of Tax and Stamp Duty) (No. 6) Order 2017 25 September 2017 26 September 2017 ACT 96
PU(A) 267/2017 Dangerous Drugs (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 2017 21 September 2017 22 September 2017 ACT 234
PU(A) 266/2017 Price Control and Anti-Profiteering (Determination of Maximum Retail Price For Petrol and Diesel) (No. 25) Order 2017 20 September 2017 21 September 2017 ACT 723
PU(A) 265/2017 Loans Guarantee (Bodies Corporate) (Remission of Tax and Stamp Duty) (No. 5) Order 2017 18 September 2017 19 September 2017 ACT 96

PU(B)

Number Title Date of Publication In force from Principal/ Amending Act No
PU(B) 449/2017 Notice Regarding The Supplementary Electoral Roll For The Second Quarter of The Year 2017 (No. 5) That Has Been Certified 25 September 2017 26 September 2017 PU(A) 293/2002
PU(B) 448/2017 Appointment of Deputy Public Prosecutor 25 September 2017 Specified in column (2) of the Schedule ACT 593
PU(B) 447/2017 Notification of Values of Crude Palm Oil Under Section 12 18 September 2017 1 October 2017 to 31 October 2017 ACT 235
PU(B) 446/2017 Fatwa Under Section 34 18 September 2017 19 September 2017 ACT 505
PU(B) 445/2017 Reservation of Land For Public Purpose For Lot 35304 Mukim Kuala Lumpur 15 September 2017 16 September 2017 ACT 56/1965

Legislation Alert

Updated

Act/Principal No. Title Amended by In force from Section amended
ACT 234 Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 (Revised 1980) PU(A) 267/2017 22 September 2017 First Schedule
PU(B) 284/2015 Appointment and Revocation of Appointment of Board Officers PU(B) 442/2017 10 April 2017 First Schedule
ACT 438 Free Zones Act 1990 PU(B) 440/2017 15 September 2017 First Schedule
PU(A) 240/2017 Tourism Tax (Exemption) Order 2017 PU(A) 260/2017 15 September 2017 Subsubparagraph 3(d)
PU(A) 288/2011 Malaysia Deposit Insurance Corporation (Allocation of Expenses, Costs Or Losses) Order 2011 PU(A) 249/2017 Assessment year of 2017 Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4

Revoked

Act/Principal No. Title Revoked by In force from
PU(B) 472/2016 Appointment and Revocation of Appointment of Director General of the Authority PU(B) 438/2017 22 March 2017
PU(A) 236/2011 Fees (Passports and Visas) (Remission of Fees) Order 2011 PU(A) 246/2017 28 August 2017
PU(A) 170/2011 Private Healthcare Facilities and Services (Compoundable Offences) Regulations 2011 PU(A) 227/2017 1 August 2017
PU(A) 189/1994 Legal Profession (Disciplinary Proceedings) (Investigating Tribunal and Disciplinary Committee) Rules 1994 PU(A) 197/2017 15 July 2017
PU(A) 68/1974 Medical Regulations 1974 PU(A) 188/2017 1 July 2017 except paragraphs 28(2)(a) and (b); 1 January 2019 - paragraphs 28(2)(a) and (b)