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CLJ Bulletin, Issue 2016, Vol 9
03 March 2016


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New This Week

1. Case(s) of the Week

  1. FARIDA ARIANI FADZIL lwn. PP [2016] 2 CLJ 626

2. Latest Cases

  1. Legal Network Series

  2. CLJ 2016 Volume 2 (Part 4)

3. Articles

  1. LNS Article(s)

4. Legislation Highlights

  1. Principal Acts

  2. Amending Acts

  3. PU(A)

  4. PU(B)

  5. Legislation Alert


CASE(S) OF THE WEEK

FARIDA ARIANI FADZIL lwn. PP [2016] 2 CLJ 626
MAHKAMAH TINGGI MALAYA, KANGAR
ABU BAKAR KATAR PK
[RAYUAN JENAYAH NO: 42S(A)-02-07-2013]
11 SEPTEMBER 2015

PROSEDUR JENAYAH: Hukuman - Pecah amanah - Rayuan terhadap sabitan dan hukuman - Tertuduh dijatuhkan hukuman penjara 30 bulan dan denda RM3,000 - Prinsip penghukuman - Kepentingan awam - Sama ada hukuman yang dijatuhkan memadai - Kanun Keseksaan, s. 409

KETERANGAN: Saksi - Kredibiliti - Pecah amanah - Penjawat awam - Tertuduh diamanah membayar wang bantuan kepada murid-murid - Saksi-saksi memberi keterangan bahawa murid-murid mendakwa tidak menerima wang bantuan - Sama ada saksi-saksi boleh dipercayai - Sama ada keterangan saksi-saksi keterangan dengar cakap - Sama ada keterangan saksi-saksi menyokong satu sama lain - Kanun Keseksaan, s. 409

UNDANG-UNDANG JENAYAH: Kanun Keseksaan, s. 409 - Pecah amanah - Penjawat awam - Tertuduh diamanah membayar wang bantuan kepada murid-murid - Ibu bapa murid-murid mendakwa tidak menerima wang bantuan - Sama ada elemen-elemen kesalahan berjaya dibuktikan - Sama ada tertuduh seorang penjawat awam - Sama ada tertuduh diamanahkan wang bantuan dalam kapasiti sebagai seorang penjawat awam - Sama ada tertuduh menggunakan wang bantuan secara curang untuk kegunaan diri sendiri


LATEST CASES

Legal Network Series

[2015] 1 LNS 56

PER: SAIDINA KHATIJAH ZAHARAH KAIRULNISAK MOHD NOOR

PROSEDUR SIVIL: Pihak-pihak - Pencelah - Pencelah dalam prosiding surat kuasa mentadbir - Bakal pencelah merupakan salah seorang waris - Sama ada bakal pencelah dibenarkan untuk mencelah dalam prosiding surat kuasa mentadbir setelah perintah perlantikan pentadbiran dikeluarkan - Sama ada bakal pencelah sebagai waris si mati mempunyai kepentingan undang-undang atas harta pusaka si mati yang mewajarkan bakal pencelah mencelah dalam prosiding surat kuasa mentadbir - Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012, A. 15 k. 6

PROSEDUR SIVIL: Penghakiman dan perintah - Pengenepian - Perintah yang bersandarkan peruntukan undang-undang yang salah - Pengeluaran perintah berkenaan perlantikan pentadbir berdasarkan s. 35 Akta Probet dan Pentadbiran 1959 - Sama ada pengeluaran perintah yang bercanggah dengan peruntukan undang-undang wajar diketepikan

[2015] 1 LNS 175

FUJI HANDLING SYSTEM SDN BHD lwn. PENTADBIR TANAH DAN DAERAH SEBERANG PERAI TENGAH

UNDANG-UNDANG PENTADBIRAN: Semakan kehakiman - Prosiding-prosiding semakan kehakiman - Permohonan certiorari terhadap merit keputusan badan awam - Semakan kehakiman terhadap merit keputusan pentadbir tanah dan daerah berhubung pengambilan tanah - Sama ada prosedur yang betul telah diambil - Sama ada permohonan perintah certiorari diberikan untuk menyemak merit keputusan atau berkaitan proses membuat keputusan

UNDANG-UNDANG TANAH: Pengambilan tanah - Awad - Remedi - Pertikaian terhadap jumlah awad yang diberi oleh pentadbir tanah - Sama ada keputusan pentadbir tanah adalah muktamad - Sama ada semakan kehakiman adalah remedi yang sesuai untuk mempertikaikan awad yang diberi oleh pentadbir tanah - Akta Pengambilan Tanah 1960, s. 36 & 37

[2015] 1 LNS 376

PERBADANAN KEMAJUAN NEGERI SELANGOR v. PCM BINA SDN BHD & ORS; ASTAKA INTAN SDN BHD (THIRD PARTY)

CONTRACT: Indemnity - Construction of - Liability of developer to indemnify owner of land - Claim for damages and indemnity arising from failure to carry out rectification of defects and damage to properties - Failure to conduct soil treatment before commencement of development work - Right of owner of land to claim against developer - Existence of undertaking by developer to rectify and carry out remedial works - Whether developer responsible for failure to conduct soil treatment - Whether land owner has basis to claim for damages and indemnity against developer

CONTRACT: Indemnity - Liabilities under guarantee - Liability of directors of developer company - Failure of developer company to conduct rectification of defects and damage to properties - Existence of guarantee agreement executed by directors - Whether directors of developer company equally responsible with developer company to indemnify owner of land for damage

EVIDENCE: Expert evidence - Principles applicable - Admissibility of expert opinion on technical matters - Whether opinions of experts are admissible in order to furnish court with scientific information - Whether court could decide on technical matters in absence of expert witness - Evidence Act 1950, s. 45(1)

[2015] 1 LNS 381

BETTER SYMBOL SDN BHD v. PRINCIPAL PROPERTIES SDN BHD & ORS

COMPANY LAW: Register of members - Rectification of register - Entry of name on company register - Application pursuant to s. 181 of Companies Act 1965 ('CA') - Locus standi - Whether plaintiff had requisite standing to seek relief under s. 181 of CA - Whether court could grant rectification of register pursuant to an application made under s. 181 of CA - Whether plaintiff ought to have commenced an action under s. 162 of CA for rectification of register instead of s. 181 of CA

COMPANY LAW: Oppression - Conduct amounting to oppression - Refusal of director to register transfer of shares - Whether amounts to oppression within meaning of s. 181 of Companies Act 1965 ('CA') - Whether non-members can invoke s. 181 of CA

COMPANY LAW: Shares - Transfer of shares - Existence of court order directing transfer of shares - Omission to effect transfer within time stipulated in order - Whether order rendered irregular and unenforceable

[2015] 1 LNS 394

RS & L MARINE SDN BHD v. BRAS VENTURES BHD & ANOR

CONTRACT: Building contract - Sub-contract - Existence of - Existence of valid and concluded sub-contract - Reliance on pre-award minutes of meeting as evidence of appointment as sub-contractor - Whether there was a binding sub-contract between parties - Whether there was concluded bargain - Whether there was intention to create legal relationship between parties - Whether pre-award minutes of meeting could be relied upon to support existence of a concluded contract


CLJ 2016 Volume 2 (Part 4)

FEDERAL COURT

Bar Malaysia v. Index Continent Sdn Bhd
Md Raus Sharif PCA, Abdull Hamid Embong, Suriyadi Halim Omar, Hasan Lah, Ramly Ali FCJJ
(Legal Profession; Civil Procedure; Statutory Interpretation - Company provided service of connecting general public to firms for legal assistance - Whether contravened provisions of Legal Profession Act 1976) [2016] 2 CLJ 545 [FC]

COURT OF APPEAL

Aneka Melor Sdn Bhd v. Seri Sabco (M) Sdn Bhd & Another Appeal
Mohd Zawawi Salleh, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Badariah Sahamid JJCA
(Contract; Evidence; Limitation - Building contract - Subcontractor filed claim ten years after accrual of cause of action - Whether action was statute-barred) [2016] 2 CLJ 563 [CA]

Tay Chong Yew & Anor v. Onn Kim Muah
Mohd Hishamudin Yunus, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Umi Kalthum Abdul Majid JJCA
(Family Law - Matrimonial assets - Division - Properties - Contribution by spouse - Whether a factor to be considered) [2016] 2 CLJ 579 [CA]

Woolley Development Sdn Bhd v. Tiara Contours Construction Sdn Bhd
Linton Albert, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Nallini Pathmanathan JJCA
(Trusts; Contract - Land - Constructive trust - Third party held property on trust for purchaser - Whether trust property in existence when trust supposed to have arisen) [2016] 2 CLJ 610 [CA]

HIGH COURT

Farida Ariani Fadzil lwn. PP
Abu Bakar Katar PK
(Prosedur Jenayah; Keterangan; Undang-undang Jenayah - Pecah amanah - Tertuduh dijatuhkan hukuman penjara 30 bulan dan denda RM3,000 - Sama ada hukuman memadai) [2016] 2 CLJ 626 [HC]

Malarkodi Subramaniam lwn. AmGeneral Insurance Bhd
Che Mohd Ruzima Ghazali H
(Prosedur Sivil - Perintah deklarasi - Sama ada Hakim Mahkamah Sesyen mempunyai bidang kuasa mengeluarkan perintah deklarasi) [2016] 2 CLJ 642 [HC]

Micheal Teo Yu Keng & Ors v. Miri City Council & Ors
Mairin Idang JC
(Administrative Law; Limitation - Judicial review - Removal of car park - Whether there was invasion or threatened invasion of applicants' legal rights) [2016] 2 CLJ 654 [HC]

Ooi Chee Tiong v. PP
Hashim Hamzah J
(Criminal Procedure; Statutory Interpretation - Bail - Unbailable offence - Discretion of court to grant bail) [2016] 2 CLJ 678 [HC]

Rashid Asari & Co v. Dynac Sdn Bhd
Rozana Ali Yusoff JC
(Civil Procedure - Parties - Addition of co-defendant - Rules of Court 2012, O. 15 r. 16(2)) [2016] 2 CLJ 689 [HC]

Seah Eng Toh Daniel & Anor v. Kingsley Khoo Hoi Leng & Ors
Harmindar Singh Dhaliwal J
(Company Law - Oppression - Minority shareholders - Companies Act 1965, s. 181) [2016] 2 CLJ 695 [HC]

Target Edge Sdn Bhd v. Zet Enterprise Sdn Bhd & Anor
Akhtar Tahir J
(Contract; Evidence; Equity - Tenancy agreement terminated due to tenant's failure to give notice to extend tenancy - Whether tenant could claim for specific performance) [2016] 2 CLJ 708 [HC]

SUBJECT INDEX

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

Judicial review - Removal of car park - Decision of City Council to remove car park - Allegation that removal would severely affect applicants' business - Application for judicial review against decision of city council - Whether applicants had any proprietary rights over car park - Whether applicants suffered losses or damages arising from removal of car park - Whether there was invasion or threatened invasion of applicants' legal rights - Whether applicants' constitutional rights would be infringed
Micheal Teo Yu Keng & Ors v. Miri City Council & Ors
(Mairin Idang JC) [2016] 2 CLJ 654 [HC]

CIVIL PROCEDURE

Injunction - Locus standi - Private limited company - Infringement of s. 37 of Legal Profession Act 1976 ('LPA') - Whether Bar Council had locus standi to commence action and apply for injunction - Whether within sole purview of Attorney General - Powers of Bar Council - Whether conferred by ss. 41 & 42 to protect and assist public on matters ancillary or incidental to law - Whether Bar Council empowered to bring civil action against parties acting in contravention of LPA - Federal Constitution, art. 145(3)
Bar Malaysia v. Index Continent Sdn Bhd
(Md Raus Sharif PCA, Abdull Hamid Embong, Suriyadi Halim Omar, Hasan Lah, Ramly Ali FCJJ) [2016] 2 CLJ 545 [FC]

Parties - Addition of co-defendant - Sale and purchase of shares - Solicitor appointed as stakeholder - Earnest money with solicitor to be refunded if purchaser aborted purchase of shares - Purchaser no longer interested in transaction and demanded for refund - Vendor instructed solicitor to continue holding earnest money - Purchaser commenced legal proceedings against solicitor for release of earnest money and proposed to add vendor as co-defendant - Whether proposed co-defendant had equal right and/or interest in earnest money - Rules of Court 2012, O. 15 r. 16(2)
Rashid Asari & Co v. Dynac Sdn Bhd
(Rozana Ali Yusoff JC) [2016] 2 CLJ 689 [HC]

COMPANY LAW

Directors - Removal - Minority shareholders - Claim that company was formed as quasi-partnership - Whether minority shareholders ought not to be removed as directors - Whether minority shareholders contributed in capital injection - Whether registered as majority-minority equity structure to enjoy tax benefits - Whether an arrangement to deceive authorities - Whether against public policy
Seah Eng Toh Daniel & Anor v. Kingsley Khoo Hoi Leng & Ors
(Harmindar Singh Dhaliwal J) [2016] 2 CLJ 695 [HC]

Oppression - Minority shareholders - Resolutions at extraordinary general meeting to increase authorised capital and paid-up capital - Whether meant to dilute minority shareholders' interest - Whether an attempt to force sellout at unfair price - Whether minority shareholders knew about increase in authorised and paid-up capital - Whether minority shareholders oppressed - Companies Act 1965, s. 181
Seah Eng Toh Daniel & Anor v. Kingsley Khoo Hoi Leng & Ors
(Harmindar Singh Dhaliwal J) [2016] 2 CLJ 695 [HC]

CONTRACT

Agreement - Tenancy agreement - Extension of tenancy - Tenancy agreement terminated due to tenant's failure to give notice to extend tenancy - Tenant claimed that parties had orally agreed to renew tenancy before expiry of tenancy agreement - Allegation that tenant met with landlord's representative - Whether claim substantiated - Whether tenant could claim for specific performance of tenancy agreement - Whether notice of termination by landlord valid
Target Edge Sdn Bhd v. Zet Enterprise Sdn Bhd & Anor
(Akhtar Tahir J) [2016] 2 CLJ 708 [HC]

Building contract - Payment - Progress claims for works done - Subcontract - Main contractor to pay subcontractor after payments released by paymaster - Paymaster released payments but main contractor failed to make payments to subcontractor - Subcontractor filed claim ten years after accrual of cause of action - Whether action was statute-barred - Whether subcontractor entitled to receive progress claims - Limitation Act 1953, s. 6(1)
Aneka Melor Sdn Bhd v. Seri Sabco (M) Sdn Bhd & Another Appeal
(Mohd Zawawi Salleh, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Badariah Sahamid JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 563 [CA]

Privity - Sale and purchase agreement ('SPA') - Execution of SPA of subject property in satisfaction of debt due to purchaser by vendor - Subject property subsequently transferred to third party - Whether third party privy to SPA - Whether third party successor-in-title to vendor - Whether SPA enforceable against third party
Woolley Development Sdn Bhd v. Tiara Contours Construction Sdn Bhd
(Linton Albert, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Nallini Pathmanathan JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 610 [CA]

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Bail - Unbailable offence - Granting of - Security offences - Application by accused - Discretion of court to grant bail - Security Offences (Special Measures) Act 2012, s. 13 - Whether applicant fell within category of persons stated under s. 13(2) - Whether Public Prosecutor applied for accused to be attached with electronic monitoring device - Whether a pre-requisite - Whether applicant sick and infirm - Whether application ought to be allowed - Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Smuggling of Migrants Act 2007, s. 26J
Ooi Chee Tiong v. PP
(Hashim Hamzah J) [2016] 2 CLJ 678 [HC]

EQUITY

Equitable interest - Tenancy - Tenanted premises upgraded by tenant - Claim for expenses and costs incurred - Whether tenant had any equitable rights over premise - Whether tenant observed and complied with all by-laws, rules and regulations of competent authority - Whether rule of equity applied - Whether tenant came to court with clean hands
Target Edge Sdn Bhd v. Zet Enterprise Sdn Bhd & Anor
(Akhtar Tahir J) [2016] 2 CLJ 708 [HC]

EVIDENCE

Adverse inference - Failure to call material witness - Tenancy agreement - Extension - Tenancy agreement terminated due to tenant's failure to give notice to extend tenancy - Allegation that tenant met landlord's representative and parties orally agreed to renew tenancy before expiry of tenancy agreement - Alleged representative of landlord not called to court - Whether burden of proof laid on tenant's shoulders - Whether adverse inference ought to be invoked for non-calling of material witness - Evidence Act 1950, ss. 101 & 114(g)
Target Edge Sdn Bhd v. Zet Enterprise Sdn Bhd & Anor
(Akhtar Tahir J) [2016] 2 CLJ 708 [HC]

Documentary evidence - Contract - Claim for payment under subcontract - Progress claims for works done by subcontractor against main contractor - Whether relevant documents adduced to support progress claims - Burden of proving items of progress claim
Aneka Melor Sdn Bhd v. Seri Sabco (M) Sdn Bhd & Another Appeal
(Mohd Zawawi Salleh, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Badariah Sahamid JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 563 [CA]

FAMILY LAW

Divorce - Maintenance - Reasonable sum - Husband ordered to pay RM4,000 per month to wife - Appeal against decision of High Court - Whether husband gainfully employed - Whether wife had means to support herself - Whether award for maintenance to be varied
Tay Chong Yew & Anor v. Onn Kim Muah
(Mohd Hishamudin Yunus, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Umi Kalthum Abdul Majid JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 579 [CA]

Matrimonial assets - Division - Properties - Contribution by spouse - Whether a factor to be considered - Whether properties acquired by first appellant before marriage - Whether inherited - Whether acquired by way of gift - Whether constitutes matrimonial assets - Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act 1976, s. 76
Tay Chong Yew & Anor v. Onn Kim Muah
(Mohd Hishamudin Yunus, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Umi Kalthum Abdul Majid JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 579 [CA]

Matrimonial assets - Division - Shares - Whether money transaction involved in purchase of shares - Whether acquired by way of gift - Whether constitutes matrimonial assets
Tay Chong Yew & Anor v. Onn Kim Muah
(Mohd Hishamudin Yunus, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Umi Kalthum Abdul Majid JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 579 [CA]

LEGAL PROFESSION

Malaysian Bar - Object and powers of Bar Council - Company provided service of connecting general public to firms for legal assistance - Whether company's acts contravened provisions of Legal Profession Act 1976 - Whether infringement of s. 37 of Legal Profession Act 1976 within sole purview of Attorney General - Whether Bar Council had locus standi to commence action and apply for injunction - Legal Profession Act 1976, ss. 41, 42 & 57 - Federal Constitution, art. 145(3)
Bar Malaysia v. Index Continent Sdn Bhd
(Md Raus Sharif PCA, Abdull Hamid Embong, Suriyadi Halim Omar, Hasan Lah, Ramly Ali FCJJ) [2016] 2 CLJ 545 [FC]

LIMITATION

Commencement of action - Judicial review - Decision of City Council to remove car park - Allegation that removal would severely affect applicants' business - Whether application for judicial review filed within time - When time starts to run - Whether 'when the grounds of application first arose' or 'when the decision is first communicated' - Whether announcement in newspapers admissible evidence - Rules of Court 2012 ('ROC'), O. 53 r. 3(6)
Micheal Teo Yu Keng & Ors v. Miri City Council & Ors
(Mairin Idang JC) [2016] 2 CLJ 654 [HC]

Contract - Accrual of cause of action - Breach of contract - Progress claims for works done - Claim for payment under subcontract - Subcontractor filed claim ten years after accrual of cause of action - Whether action was statute-barred - Limitation Act 1953, s. 6(1)
Aneka Melor Sdn Bhd v. Seri Sabco (M) Sdn Bhd & Another Appeal
(Mohd Zawawi Salleh, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Badariah Sahamid JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 563 [CA]

STATUTORY INTERPRETATION

Aids to construction - Hansard - Security Offences (Special Measures) Act 2012, s. 13 - Whether provision to be read in its ordinary and literal meaning - Whether there was ambiguity or obscurity in interpreting provision - Whether reference ought to be made to Hansard
Ooi Chee Tiong v. PP
(Hashim Hamzah J) [2016] 2 CLJ 678 [HC]

Construction - Power given by Act - Legal Profession Act 1976 ('LPA') - Interpretation of - Whether ss. 37, 41, 42 & 57 should be given purposive interpretation - Whether there was failure to appreciate extent of objectives and purpose of LPA and Bar Council's roles and functions - Whether Bar Council empowered to bring civil action against parties acting in contravention of LPA
Bar Malaysia v. Index Continent Sdn Bhd
(Md Raus Sharif PCA, Abdull Hamid Embong, Suriyadi Halim Omar, Hasan Lah, Ramly Ali FCJJ) [2016] 2 CLJ 545 [FC]

TRUSTS

Land - Creation of trust - Constructive trust - Allegation that third party held property on trust for purchaser - Whether trust property in existence when trust supposed to have arisen - Whether third party acquired ownership of trust property - Whether third party acted unconscionably to deprive purchaser of trust property - Whether constructive trust arose
Woolley Development Sdn Bhd v. Tiara Contours Construction Sdn Bhd
(Linton Albert, Hamid Sultan Abu Backer, Nallini Pathmanathan JJCA) [2016] 2 CLJ 610 [CA]

INDEKS PERKARA

KETERANGAN

Saksi - Kredibiliti - Pecah amanah - Penjawat awam - Tertuduh diamanah membayar wang bantuan kepada murid-murid - Saksi-saksi memberi keterangan bahawa murid-murid mendakwa tidak menerima wang bantuan - Sama ada saksi-saksi boleh dipercayai - Sama ada keterangan saksi-saksi keterangan dengar cakap - Sama ada keterangan saksi-saksi menyokong satu sama lain - Kanun Keseksaan, s. 409
Farida Ariani Fadzil lwn. PP
(Abu Bakar Katar PK) [2016] 2 CLJ 626 [HC]

PROSEDUR JENAYAH

Hukuman - Pecah amanah - Rayuan terhadap sabitan dan hukuman - Tertuduh dijatuhkan hukuman penjara 30 bulan dan denda RM3,000 - Prinsip penghukuman - Kepentingan awam - Sama ada hukuman yang dijatuhkan memadai - Kanun Keseksaan, s. 409
Farida Ariani Fadzil lwn. PP
(Abu Bakar Katar PK) [2016] 2 CLJ 626 [HC]

PROSEDUR SIVIL

Saman pemula - Perintah deklarasi - Permohonan - Permohonan deklarasi polisi insurans tidak sah - Plaintif mengemukakan saman pemula berasingan daripada tuntutan asal bagi mendapatkan perintah deklarasi - Sama ada Hakim Mahkamah Sesyen ('HMS') mempunyai bidang kuasa mengeluarkan perintah deklarasi - Sama ada HMS mengambil kira doktrin stare decisis - Sama ada HMS mempunyai kuasa memanggil semula saksi untuk pemeriksaan balas
Malarkodi Subramaniam lwn. AmGeneral Insurance Bhd
(Che Mohd Ruzima Ghazali H) [2016] 2 CLJ 642 [HC]

UNDANG-UNDANG JENAYAH

Kanun Keseksaan, s. 409 - Pecah amanah - Penjawat awam - Tertuduh diamanah membayar wang bantuan kepada murid-murid - Ibu bapa murid-murid mendakwa tidak menerima wang bantuan - Sama ada elemen-elemen kesalahan berjaya dibuktikan - Sama ada tertuduh seorang penjawat awam - Sama ada tertuduh diamanahkan wang bantuan dalam kapasiti sebagai seorang penjawat awam - Sama ada tertuduh menggunakan wang bantuan secara curang untuk kegunaan diri sendiri
Farida Ariani Fadzil lwn. PP
(Abu Bakar Katar PK) [2016] 2 CLJ 626 [HC]


ARTICLES

LNS Article(s)

  1. GOOD WILL DRAFTING AND THE RULE IN SAUNDERS V. VAUTIER YOUNG ADULTS BUSTING TRUSTS AND WHAT CAN BE DONE TO PREVENT IT* [Read excerpt]
    by: TIMOTHY MORTON, ASSOCIATE** [2016] 1 LNS(A) xix

  2. [2016] 1 LNS(A) xix
    logo
    AUSTRALIA

    GOOD WILL DRAFTING AND THE RULE IN SAUNDERS V. VAUTIER
    YOUNG ADULTS BUSTING TRUSTS AND WHAT CAN BE DONE TO PREVENT IT*

    by
    TIMOTHY MORTON, ASSOCIATE**

    A simple and probably common error in the drafting of wills arises from a failure to make a gift of property to a minor child contingent on that child attaining, at a minimum, the age of eighteen.

    The rule in Saunders v. Vautier remains good law. It applies where:

    »      there is a trust;

    »      there is an adult beneficiary;

    »      the beneficiary’s interest in the trust property is vested and indefeasible; and

    »      the beneficiary’s interest is in the income and the capital of trust property;

    Where these circumstances exist, the beneficiary is entitled to require the trustee to transfer the trust property to them absolutely.

    It is critically important that all will drafters turn their mind to the application of the rule in Saunders v. Vautier, as recent decisions in the New South Wales and Victorian Supreme Courts show.

    . . .

    * Published with kind permission of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory. See Ethos No. 237 September 2015.

    ** Estates and Estate Planning, Bradley Allen Love.


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  3. INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) AND THE PREVENTION OF AIRCRAFT HIJACKING [Read excerpt]
    by: ISMAIL MUSTAPHA ADUA, PH.D [2016] 1 LNS(A) xxi

  4. [2016] 1 LNS(A) xxi
    logo
    NIGERIA

    INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)
    AND THE PREVENTION OF AIRCRAFT HIJACKING

    by
    ISMAIL MUSTAPHA ADUA, PH.D

    ABSTRACT

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was established to secure civil aviation against any of the unlawful interferences. Such unlawful interferences include aircraft hijacking that has been committed most in the history of civil aviation. Various measures have been adopted to prevent and suppress this particular offence. Starting from 1963 to date various international Conventions on aircraft hijacking have been adopted by the international community under the ICAO auspices to secure international civil aviation. The ICAO, on her own, adopts the international standard and recommended practices, designated as Annex 17, to prevent the offence. This article intends to critically analyse the contribution of the ICAO functionaries on the adoption of Annex 17. The paper further examines the status of the Annex and whether it forms an integral part of the Chicago Convention 1944. The qualitative legal research method which includes content analysis of the existing literature is adopted to analyse the issues raised. The paper finds that ICAO has immensely contributed to the prevention of aircraft hijacking all over the world. It also finds that the Annex 17 is an integral part of the Chicago Convention 1944 but its binding nature is weak.

     

    . . .

    * Business Law Department, Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, (LL.B, University Of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; BL, Nigerian Law School Kano, Nigeria; LL.M, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; Ph.D, International Islamic University, Malaysia). (Email: ismailaduam@gmail.com ismadua@yahoo.com). Phone number: +2348062643265 or +234818100364.


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LEGISLATION HIGHLIGHTS

Principal Acts

Number Title In force from Repealing
ACT 774 Allied Health Professions Act 2016 Not Yet In Force -
ACT 773 Finance Act 2015 The Income Tax Act 1967 [Act 53] see s 3; The Petroleum (Income Tax) Act 1967 [Act 543] see s 33; The Real Property Gains Tax Act 1976 [Act 169] see s 39; The Labuan Business Activity Tax Act 1990 [Act 445] see s 44; The Goods and Services Tax Act 2014 [Act 762] see s 47; The Promotion of Investments Act 1986 [Act 327] see s 57 -
ACT 772 Animal Welfare Act 2015 Not Yet In Force -
ACT 771 Malaysian Aviation Commission Act 2015 1 March 2016 [PU(B) 88/2016] -
ACT 770 Special Measures Against Terrorism In Foreign Countries Act 2015 15 June 2015 [PU(B) 250/2015] -

Amending Acts

Number Title In force from Principal/Amending Act No
ACT A1504 Employees Provident Fund (Amendment) Act 2016 Not Yet In Force ACT 452
ACT A1503 Supply Act 2016 24 December 2015  
ACT A1502 Development Financial Institutions (Amendment) Act 2015 31 January 2016 [PU(B) 46/2016] ACT 618
ACT A1501 Electricity Supply (Amendment) Act 2015 1 January 2016 [PU(B) 501/2015] ACT 447
ACT A1500 Anti-Trafficking In Persons and Anti-Smuggling of Migrants (Amendment) Act 2015 18 November 2015 [PU(B) 460/2015] ACT 670

PU(A)

Number Title Date of Publication In force from Principal/ Amending Act No
PU(A) 48/2016 Fees (Passports and Visas) (Remission of Fees) Order 2016 1 March 2016 1 March 2016 to 31 December 2016 ACT 209
PU(A) 47/2016 Diplomatic and Consular Officers (Oaths and Fees) (Remission of Fees) Regulations 2016 1 March 2016 1 March 2016 to 31 December 2016 ACT 348
PU(A) 46/2016 Passports (Visa To Tourist From The People's Republic of China) (Exemption) Order 2016 1 March 2016 1 March 2016 until 31 December 2016 ACT 150
PU(A) 45/2016 Educational Institutions (Discipline) (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 2016 1 March 2016 2 March 2016 ACT 174
PU(A) 44/2016 Competition (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 2016 29 February 2016 1 March 2016 ACT 712

PU(B)

Number Title Date of Publication In force from Principal/ Amending Act No
PU(B) 92/2016 Appointment of Members and Alternate Members of The Board 1 March 2016 Appointment - Specified in column (3) of the Schedule; Alternate - Specified period in column (5) of the Schedule ACT 343
PU(B) 91/2016 Notice To Third Parties 1 March 2016 18 April 2016 ACT 613
PU(B) 90/2016 Notice To Third Parties 1 March 2016 21 March 2016 ACT 613
PU(B) 89/2016 Appointment of Date of Coming Into Operation 29 February 2016 1 March 2016 ACT A1498
PU(B) 88/2016 Appointment of Date of Coming Into Operation 29 February 2016 1 March 2016 ACT 771

Legislation Alert

Updated

Act/Principal No. Title Amended by In force from Section amended
ACT 174 Educational Institutions (Discipline) Act 1976 PU(A) 45/2016 2 March 2016 First Schedule
ACT 3 Civil Aviation Act 1969 ACT A1497 1 March 2016 [PU(B) 86/2016] Sections 2, 3, 5A, 24A, 24F, 24K and Part VIIIB
PU(A) 350/2012 Excise Duties Order 2012 PU(A) 43/2016 1 March 2016 Schedule
ACT 712 Competition Act 2010 PU(A) 44/2016 1 March 2016 First Schedule
ACT 599 Consumer Protection Act 1999 ACT A1498 1 March 2016 [PU(B) 89/2016] Section 99

 

Revoked

 

Act/Principal No. Title Revoked by In force from
PU(A) 221/2015 Passport (Visa to Tourist From the People's Republic of China) (Exemption) Order 2015 PU(A) 46/2016 1 March 2016 until 31 December 2016
PU(A) 325/1996 Companies (Exemption) Order 1996 PU(A) 42/2016 15 March 2016
PU(B) 165/2013 Polling Districts, Polling Centres and Polling Hours (Amendment) (No. 12) PU(B) 57/2016 17 February 2016 up to and including 1 March 2016
PU(B) 101/2012 Appointment and Revocation of Appointment of Director General of the Authority PU(B) 55/2016 19 September 2015
PU(B) 437/2014 Appointment and Revocation of Appointment of the Members of the Competition Commission PU(B) 47/2016 4 January 2016 to 3 January 2019