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CLJ Bulletin, Issue 2015, Vol 44
30 October 2015


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New This Week

1. Case(s) of the Week

  1. MOHD KHIR TOYO v. PP [2015] 8 CLJ 769

  2. PP v. AZMI SHAROM [2015] 8 CLJ 921

2. Latest Cases

  1. Legal Network Series

  2. CLJ 2015 Volume 8 (Part 6)

  3. CLJ 2015 Volume 8 (Part 7)

3. Articles

  1. LNS Article(s)

  2. CLJ Article(s)

4. Legislation Highlights

  1. Principal Acts

  2. Amending Acts

  3. PU(A)

  4. PU(B)

  5. Legislation Alert


CASE(S) OF THE WEEK

MOHD KHIR TOYO v. PP [2015] 8 CLJ 769
FEDERAL COURT, PUTRAJAYA
ZULKEFLI AHMAD MAKINUDIN CJ (MALAYA), AHMAD MAAROP FCJ, HASAN LAH FCJ, JEFFREY TAN FCJ, RAMLY ALI FCJ
[CRIMINAL APPEAL NO: 05-122-2013]
29 SEPTEMBER 2015

CRIMINAL LAW: Penal Code - Section 165 - Public servant accepted valuable thing for inadequate consideration from person whom he knew had connections with his official work - Ingredients of charge - Whether proven - Anti-Corruption Act 1997, ss. 2, 42(2), (3) - Penal Code, s. 21(i)

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Sentence - Corruption - Whether imprisonment right and proper punishment for corruption - Whether fine or community service proper punishment - Whether one year imprisonment appropriate - Order of forfeiture - Whether lawful deprivation - Whether appellant could resist forfeiture upon conviction - Penal Code, s. 165

EVIDENCE: Accomplice - Corroboration - Offence under s. 165 of Penal Code - Public servant accepted valuable thing for inadequate consideration from a person whom he knew had connections with his official work - Whether giver could be `regarded as an accomplice' - Whether uncorroborated evidence of accomplice should be set aside - Anti-Corruption Act 1997, s. 44(1)(a)(ii) & (2)


PP v. AZMI SHAROM [2015] 8 CLJ 921
FEDERAL COURT, PUTRAJAYA
ARIFIN ZAKARIA CJ, RAUS SHARIF PCA, ZULKEFLI AHMAD MAKINUDIN CJ (MALAYA), ABDULL HAMID EMBONG FCJ, SURIYADI HALIM OMAR FCJ
[CRIMINAL REFERENCE NO: 06-5-12-2014(W)]
06 OCTOBER 2015

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: Constitution - Pre-Merdeka law - Whether Sedition Act 1948 ('Act') valid and enforceable under Federal Constitution ('Constitution') - Whether Act comes within ambit of art. 10(2) of Constitution - Whether term "Parliament may by law" in art. 10(2) should be read restrictively or harmoniously with other provisions - Whether intention of framers of Constitution to provide continuance of all existing laws to bring it into accord with Constitution - Whether Act continues to be valid and enforceable post Merdeka Day - Federal Constitution, art. 162

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: Legislation - Validity of impugned legislation - Whether s. 4(1) of Sedition Act 1948 ('Act') contravened art. 10(2) of Federal Constitution ('Constitution') - Fundamental liberties - Freedom of speech - Parliament given right to impose restrictions deemed necessary in the interest of security of Federation - Whether restrictions must fall within parameters set out by art. 10(2)(a) of Constitution - Application of 'reasonable' and 'proportionality' tests - Whether for court to determine restrictions imposed reasonable or otherwise - Whether a matter strictly within discretion of Legislature - Section 4(1) of Act directed to any act, word or publication having seditious tendencies - Whether restrictions imposed by s. 4(1) of Act too remote or not sufficiently connected to subjects enumerated in art. 10(2)(a) of Constitution


LATEST CASES

Legal Network Series

[2014] 1 LNS 1516

LIM CHIN KEA lwn. MOHD NAZLE HASHIM

LALULINTAS JALAN: Kecuaian - Kemalangan jalan raya - Kemalangan di persimpangan lampu isyarat - Pergeseran antara motorsikal dan kereta - Penunggang motorsikal terjatuh setelah bergeser dengan kereta yang seterusnya mengakibatkan penunggang motorsikal melanggar dengan lori - Sama ada kerosakan pada motorsikal plaintif menyokong versi kemalangan plaintif - Sama ada pemandu kereta bertanggungjawab

PROSEDUR SIVIL: Rayuan - Kemalangan jalan raya - Rayuan terhadap liabiliti - Sama ada hakim bicara tersalah arah dalam memutuskan versi defendan lebih berkemungkinan - Sama ada tanggungan liabiliti 100% oleh plaintif wajar dikekalkan

[2014] 1 LNS 1532

SAADON AWANG lwn. INSPEKTOR NURUL AIDA AMIR & YANG LAIN

PROSEDUR SIVIL: Pembatalan - Tindakan - Kausa tindakan yang sah - Prosiding kerajaan - Tindakan berdasarkan tort kecuaian - Kegagalan memplidkan butiran kecuaian - Kegagalan menamakan secara khusus pegawai penyiasat yang sebenar yang bertugas - Sama ada tuntutan plaintif telah mematuhi s. 5 & 6 Akta Prosiding Kerajaan 1956 - Sama ada pliding plaintif cacat dan wajar dibatalkan - Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012, A. 18 k. 19(1)(a)

PROSEDUR SIVIL: Pembatalan - Tindakan - Tuntutan yang mengaibkan, remeh dan menyusahkan - Penyalahgunaan proses mahkamah - Pindaan terhadap tuntutan dibuat tiga kali - Penukaran dari tuntutan berdasarkan tahanan salah kepada kecuaian dalam siasatan oleh pegawai penyiasat - Sama ada tindakan plaintif wajar dibatalkan - Sama ada tindakan plaintif merupakan penyalahgunaan proses mahkamah - Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012, A. 18 k. 19(1)(b), (d)

TORT: Liabiliti vikarius - Liabiliti kerajaan - Dakwaan kecuaian dalam siasatan oleh pegawai siasatan - Kegagalan menamakan secara khusus pegawai penyiasat yang sebenar sebagai pihak dalam prosiding - Sama ada plaintif dapat mempertahankan tuntutan secara vikarius terhadap kerajaan tanpa menamakan pegawai yang sebenar sebagai pihak dalam prosiding

[2014] 1 LNS 1427

PP v. REWANG TEMPE

CRIMINAL LAW: Murder - S. 302 Penal Code - Prima facie case - Ingredients of charge - Actus reus - One stab wound at upper middle abdomen - Whether one stab wound in ordinary course of nature would have resulted in death of deceased

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Mens rea - Inference from facts established - Murder - Deep stab wound that extended to 15 cm - Intention to cause injury - Accused armed himself with knife - Whether injury caused to deceased was accidental - Whether accused had intention to kill the deceased

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Defence - Private defence, right of - Grave and sudden provocation - Self defence - Deceased declined to accede to accused's request to swear under the Al-Quran - Deceased merely kept quiet - Whether failure of deceased to swear under the Al-Quran could constitute grave and sudden provocation which justified accused exercising right of self-defence - Whether accused was under assault to entitle him to exercise right of self-defence - Whether right of private defence available - Penal Code, s. 100

EVIDENCE: Circumstantial evidence - Murder - Inference from facts - Lack of direct evidence - Pair of jeans worn by accused at time of arrest found to contain blood stains belonging to deceased - Whether gave rise to reasonable inference of fact that accused caused injury to deceased

EVIDENCE: Statement - Admissibility - Statement under s. 112 of the Criminal Procedure Code - Admissibility of statement under s. 32(1) of the Evidence Act 1950 - Statement made by a non-Malaysian who had left country shortly after incident - Whether police and prosecution showed evidence that they had exercised due diligence to secure attendance of witness in Court

[2015] 1 LNS 195

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD v. VISION PINES SDN BHD

LIMITATION: Accrual of cause of action - Breach of contract - Claim for loss of revenue - Whether plaintiff's claim was time barred - Whether cause of action had accrued on date plaintiff found out electricity meter was tampered with upon inspection being carried out

UTILITIES: Electric - Claim for loss of revenue - Tampering with electricity meter installation - Back-billing - Whether there was tampering done by defendant on meter installation - Whether act of tampering was proved by plaintiff - Electricity Supply Act 1990, s. 38(3)

[2015] 1 LNS 196

PP v. LOW AH CHAI

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Appeal - Appeal against acquittal and discharge - Offence of human trafficking - Element of forced labour - Whether prosecution proved prima facie case against accused - Whether accused ought to be acquitted and discharged following prosecution's failure to tender evidence of forced labour

CRIMINAL LAW: Anti-Trafficking In Persons And Anti-Smuggling of Migrants Act 2007 - Section 12 - Exploitation - Forced labour or services - Domestic servants had chance to escape - Absence of ill-treatment - Employer's refusal to give salary and day off to domestic servants - Whether constituted an act of trafficking in persons - Whether there was any evidence of coercion or force - Whether any injustice caused to domestic servants


CLJ 2015 Volume 8 (Part 6)

COURT

FEDERAL COURT

Mohd Khir Toyo v. PP
(Criminal Law; Criminal Procedure; Evidence - Sentence - Corruption - Whether imprisonment right and proper punishment for corruption - Penal Code, s. 165) [2015] 8 CLJ 769 [FC]

COURT OF APPEAL

Mohamad Shahrudin Md Isa v. PP & Another Appeal
(Criminal Law; Criminal Procedure; Evidence - Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 - Section 39B(1)(a) - Principle of double presumption) [2015] 8 CLJ 839 [CA]

Petra Perdana Bhd v. Tengku Dato' Ibrahim Petra Tengku Indra Petra & Ors
(Company Law - Directors - Breach of fiduciary duties - Allegation of wrongful divestment of company's shareholding in subsidiary company) [2015] 8 CLJ 856 [CA]

Sadiq Batcha Kaja Modeen lwn. PP
(Undang-undang Jenayah; Prosedur Jenayah; Keterangan - Pengedaran dadah berbahaya - Sama ada anggapan mengedar di bawah s. 37(da) Akta Dadah Berbahaya 1952 terpakai kepada dadah jenis ketamin) [2015] 8 CLJ 882 [CA]

HIGH COURT

Lee Guat Cheow & Co Sdn Bhd v. Wong Soo Ha
(Land Law - Ownership - Dispute - Whether ownership of plot of land vested in land owner or occupier - Civil Law Act 1956, s. 28(2)) [2015] 8 CLJ 890 [HC]

Maria Rochele Silva Sarabia v. Registrar Of Lands And Surveys & Anor
(Land Law - Sale of land - Land Registrar registered transfer of land although caveat still in existence - Whether registrar's action deprived plaintiff's equitable interest over land) [2015] 8 CLJ 901 [HC]

Wong Huang Ing v. PP
(Criminal Procedure - Forfeiture - Dangerous drugs - Statutory presumption under s. 35 of Dangerous Drugs (Forfeiture of Property) Act 1988) [2015] 8 CLJ 914 [HC]

SUBJECT INDEX

COMPANY LAW

Directors - Breach of fiduciary duties - Allegation of wrongful divestment of company's shareholding in subsidiary company - Claim by company against ex-directors - Whether divestments made to meet urgent liquidity needs of company - Whether directors acted in breach of fiduciary and statutory duties - Whether there was conspiracy to injure company - Whether divestments were done for best interest of company - Whether conduct of directors in flagrant breach of members' resolution - Whether constituted a breach under s. 132(1) of Companies Act 1965
Petra Perdana Bhd v. Tengku Dato' Ibrahim Petra Tengku Indra Petra & Ors
(Abdul Aziz Abd Rahim, Rohana Yusuf, Prasad Sandosham Abraham JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 856 [CA]

CRIMINAL LAW

Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 - Section 39B(1)(a) - Trafficking in total of 426.77g cannabis - First accused personally handed over drugs from dashboard of car to police - Whether looking scared and nervous constituted inference of guilt - Whether first and second accused had knowledge, custody and control of drugs - Whether prima facie case proved against appellants - Principle of double presumption - Whether wrongly invoked - Whether conviction and sentence safe
Mohamad Shahrudin Md Isa v. PP & Another Appeal
(Balia Yusof Wahi, Aziah Ali, Abang Iskandar JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 839 [CA]

Penal Code - Section 165 - Public servant accepted valuable thing for inadequate consideration from person whom he knew had connections with his official work - Ingredients of charge - Whether proven - Anti-Corruption Act 1997, ss. 2, 42(2), (3) - Penal Code, s. 21(i)
Mohd Khir Toyo v. PP
(Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin CJ (Malaya), Ahmad Maarop, Hasan Lah, Jeffrey Tan, Ramly Ali FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 769 [FC]

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Appeal - Appeal against conviction and sentence - First accused personally handed over drugs from dashboard of car to police - Whether looking scared and nervous constituted inference of guilt - Whether first and second accused had knowledge, custody and control of drugs - Whether both accused acted in furtherance of common intention - Whether charge against both accused persons alluded to common intention - Whether prima facie case proved against appellants - Whether trial judge wrongly invoked principle of double presumption - Whether conviction and sentence safe
Mohamad Shahrudin Md Isa v. PP & Another Appeal
(Balia Yusof Wahi, Aziah Ali, Abang Iskandar JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 839 [CA]

Forfeiture - Dangerous drugs - Forfeiture of property under Dangerous Drugs (Forfeiture of Property) Act 1988 - Statutory presumption under s. 35 of the Act - Whether applied under an inquiry under s. 32 - Claimant's failure to prove on balance of probabilities that property was not illegal and he was entitled to it - Whether Sessions Court Judge correctly dismissed claim to property
Wong Huang Ing v. PP
(Ravinthran Paramaguru J) [2015] 8 CLJ 914 [HC]

Sentence - Corruption - Whether imprisonment right and proper punishment for corruption - Whether fine or community service proper punishment - Whether one year imprisonment appropriate - Order of forfeiture - Whether lawful deprivation - Whether appellant could resist forfeiture upon conviction - Penal Code, s. 165
Mohd Khir Toyo v. PP
(Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin CJ (Malaya), Ahmad Maarop, Hasan Lah, Jeffrey Tan, Ramly Ali FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 769 [FC]

EVIDENCE

Accomplice - Corroboration - Offence under s. 165 of Penal Code - Public servant accepted valuable thing for inadequate consideration from a person whom he knew had connections with his official work - Whether giver could be 'regarded as an accomplice' - Whether uncorroborated evidence of accomplice should be set aside - Anti-Corruption Act 1997, s. 44(1)(a)(ii) & (2)
Mohd Khir Toyo v. PP
(Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin CJ (Malaya), Ahmad Maarop, Hasan Lah, Jeffrey Tan, Ramly Ali FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 769 [FC]

Exhibits - Break in chain of evidence - Allegation of - Whether exhibits positively identified
Mohamad Shahrudin Md Isa v. PP & Another Appeal
(Balia Yusof Wahi, Aziah Ali, Abang Iskandar JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 839 [CA]

LAND LAW

Ownership - Dispute - Discovery of occupier on plot of land during land survey - Allegation that there was agreement between land owner and occupier - Agreement allowed occupier to build house on plot of land - Land owner commenced action for vacant possession - Occupier claimed for specific performance to compel land owner to transfer plot of land - Whether ownership of plot of land vested in land owner or occupier - Civil Law Act 1956, s. 28(2)
Lee Guat Cheow & Co Sdn Bhd v. Wong Soo Ha
(Mohamed Zaini Mazlan JC) [2015] 8 CLJ 890 [HC]

Sale of land - Caveat - Plaintiff purchased land from vendor - Land sold to third party pursuant to auction - Plaintiff entered caveat on land - Land Registrar registered transfer of land although caveat still in existence - Whether Registrar's act caused plaintiff's caveat to be arbitrarily and unilaterally removed - Whether registrar's action deprived plaintiff of equitable interest over land - Whether plaintiff as foreigner could acquire interest or equitable interest over land - Whether interest or equitable interest could pass from vendor to plaintiff - Whether SPA entered was valid - Land Code (Sarawak) (Cap 81), ss. 175, 177 & 197
Maria Rochele Silva Sarabia v. Registrar Of Lands And Surveys & Anor
(Alwi Abdul Wahab JC) [2015] 8 CLJ 901 [HC]

INDEKS PERKARA

KETERANGAN

Kenyataan bersumpah - Pembelaan - Sama ada tertuduh hendaklah memberi keterangan terlebih dahulu sebelum saksi-saksi lain dipanggil untuk memberi keterangan - Sama ada tertuduh boleh dianggap sebagai saksi pertama setelah saksi kedua selesai memberi keterangan - Kanun Tatacara Jenayah, s. 173(j)(iii)
Sadiq Batcha Kaja Modeen lwn. PP
(Aziah Ali, Zakaria Sam, Abdul Rahman Sebli HHMR) [2015] 8 CLJ 882 [CA]

PROSEDUR JENAYAH

Rayuan - Rayuan terhadap sabitan dan hukuman - Pengedaran dadah berbahaya - Akta Dadah Berbahaya 1952, s. 39B(1)(a) - Dadah jenis ketamin seberat 5,830g - Sama ada anggapan mengedar di bawah s. 37(da) Akta Dadah Berbahaya 1952 terpakai kepada dadah jenis ketamin - Sama ada hakim bicara terkhilaf apabila mengguna pakai anggapan tersebut - Sama ada tertuduh harus memberi keterangan bersumpah terlebih dahulu sebelum saksi-saksi lain - Kanun Tatacara Jenayah, s. 173(j)(iii) - Sama ada sabitan selamat
Sadiq Batcha Kaja Modeen lwn. PP
(Aziah Ali, Zakaria Sam, Abdul Rahman Sebli HHMR) [2015] 8 CLJ 882 [CA]

UNDANG-UNDANG JENAYAH

Akta Dadah Berbahaya 1952 - Seksyen 39B(1)(a) - Pengedaran dadah berbahaya - Dadah jenis ketamin seberat 5,830g - Sama ada anggapan mengedar di bawah s. 37(da) Akta Dadah Berbahaya 1952 terpakai kepada dadah jenis ketamin - Sama ada hakim bicara terkhilaf apabila mengguna pakai anggapan tersebut - Sama ada tertuduh harus memberi keterangan bersumpah terlebih dahulu sebelum saksi-saksi lain - Kanun Tatacara Jenayah, s. 173(j)(iii) - Sama ada sabitan selamat
Sadiq Batcha Kaja Modeen lwn. PP
(Aziah Ali, Zakaria Sam, Abdul Rahman Sebli HHMR) [2015] 8 CLJ 882 [CA]


CLJ 2015 Volume 8 (Part 7)

COURT

FEDERAL COURT

PP v. Azmi Sharom
(Constitutional Law - Constitution - Pre-Merdeka law - Whether Sedition Act 1948 valid and enforceable under Federal Constitution) [2015] 8 CLJ 921 [FC]

Samuel Naik Siang Ting v. Public Bank Bhd
(Land Law; Civil Procedure - Indefeasibility of title and interests - Registered proprietor of land entered into Sale and Purchase Agreements ('SPAS') with two different sets of purchasers) [2015] 8 CLJ 944 [FC]

State Government Of Negeri Sembilan & Ors v. Muhammad Juzaili Mohd Khamis & Ors
(Constitutional Law - Courts - High Court - Jurisdiction) [2015] 8 CLJ 975 [FC]

COURT OF APPEAL

Abdol Rahim Zamani Mohammad Ali v. PP
(Evidence; Criminal Procedure - Judge's notes of evidence - Record of proceedings) [2015] 8 CLJ 990 [CA]

Ong Siew Hwa v. UMW Toyota Motor Sdn Bhd
(Hire Purchase - Hire purchase agreement - Implied condition - Defective goods) [2015] 8 CLJ 1003 [CA]

PP v. Abuchi Ben James
(Criminal Procedure - Appeal - Acquittal and discharge - Appeal against) [2015] 8 CLJ 1011 [CA]

Yung Ing Ing v. Hunfara Construction Sdn Bhd
(Company Law; Statutory Interpretation; Words And Phrases - Director - Liabilities) [2015] 8 CLJ 1019 [CA]

HIGH COURT

Government Of The State Of Penang v. Minister Of Home Affairs & Ors
(Administrative Law - Judicial review - Application for) [2015] 8 CLJ 1036 [HC]

Seema Jaya Sdn Bhd & Anor v. CIMB Bank Bhd
(Land Law; Civil Procedure - Action - Res judicata) [2015] 8 CLJ 1047 [HC]

SUBJECT INDEX

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

Judicial review - Application for - Establishment of Penang Voluntary Patrol Unit (PPS) by Government of Penang - Declaration by Minister of Home Affairs that PPS an unlawful society - Whether PPS lawfully and properly established pursuant to s. 101(v) of Local Government Act 1976 - Whether PPS a society within meaning of s. 5(1) of Societies Act 1966 - Whether Minister of Home Affairs acted ultra vires the Local Government Act 1976 and Societies Act 1966
Government Of The State Of Penang v. Minister Of Home Affairs & Ors
(Collin Lawrence Sequerah JC) [2015] 8 CLJ 1036 [HC]

CIVIL PROCEDURE

Action - Res judicata - Matters which could and should reasonably have been raised in earlier proceedings - Sale of property by way of auction - Challenge as to valuation - Allegation that property sold at undervalue - Whether challenge should have been raised in foreclosure proceedings - Whether chargor estopped from challenging valuation by way of fresh action
Seema Jaya Sdn Bhd & Anor v. CIMB Bank Bhd
(SM Komathy Suppiah JC) [2015] 8 CLJ 1047 [HC]

Pleadings - Unpleaded issues - Whether court had duty to hear and determine unpleaded issues - Whether raising of issue would completely change character of appellant's defence to respondent's claim - Whether issue would be highly prejudicial to respondent's case
Samuel Naik Siang Ting v. Public Bank Bhd
(Ahmad Maarop, Zainun Ali, Ramly Ali, Azahar Mohamed, Zaharah Ibrahim FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 944 [FC]

COMPANY LAW

Director - Liabilities - Consent judgment obtained against company - Judgment sum to be paid by way of four instalments - Whole sum due in event of default of any instalment - Cheque issued in company's name by director - Cheque dishonoured when presented for payments - Whether director as officer of company liable for amount specified in cheques - Companies Act 1965, ss. 4, 121(2), 121(2)(c) - Bills of Exchange Act 1949, s. 81A
Yung Ing Ing v. Hunfara Construction Sdn Bhd
(Mohd Hishamudin Yunus, David Wong Dak Wah, Umi Kalthum Abdul Majid JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 1019 [CA]

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

Constitution - Pre-Merdeka law - Whether Sedition Act 1948 ('Act') valid and enforceable under Federal Constitution ('Constitution') - Whether Act comes within ambit of art. 10(2) of Constitution - Whether term "Parliament may by law" in art. 10(2) should be read restrictively or harmoniously with other provisions - Whether intention of framers of Constitution to provide continuance of all existing laws to bring it into accord with Constitution - Whether Act continues to be valid and enforceable post Merdeka Day - Federal Constitution, art. 162
PP v. Azmi Sharom
(Arifin Zakaria CJ, Raus Sharif PCA, Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin CJ (Malaya), Abdull Hamid Embong, Suriyadi Halim Omar FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 921 [FC]

Courts - High Court - Jurisdiction - Validity and constitutionality of State Law - Challenge thereto - Whether could be questioned by way of collateral attack in judicial review proceeding in High Court - Whether High Court and Court of Appeal fell into jurisdictional error in entertaining application and appeal thereon - Whether judicial review action rendered incompetent - Proper mode of challenge - Whether to comply with specific procedures laid out in cls. (3) and (4) of art. 4 of Federal Constitution - Whether to commence with leave of judge of Federal Court - Federal Constitution, arts. 4(3), (4), 5(1), 8(2), 9(2) & 10(1) - Syariah Criminal (Negeri Sembilan) Enactment 1992, s. 66
State Government Of Negeri Sembilan & Ors v. Muhammad Juzaili Mohd Khamis & Ors
(Raus Sharif PCA, Ahmad Maarop, Hasan Lah, Azahar Mohamed, Zaharah Ibrahim FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 975 [FC]

Legislation - Validity of impugned legislation - Whether s. 4(1) of Sedition Act 1948 ('Act') contravened art. 10(2) of Federal Constitution ('Constitution') - Fundamental liberties - Freedom of speech - Parliament given right to impose restrictions deemed necessary in the interest of security of Federation - Whether restrictions must fall within parameters set out by art. 10(2)(a) of Constitution - Application of 'reasonable' and 'proportionality' tests - Whether for court to determine restrictions imposed reasonable or otherwise - Whether a matter strictly within discretion of Legislature - Section 4(1) of Act directed to any act, word or publication having seditious tendencies - Whether restrictions imposed by s. 4(1) of Act too remote or not sufficiently connected to subjects enumerated in art. 10(2)(a) of Constitution
PP v. Azmi Sharom
(Arifin Zakaria CJ, Raus Sharif PCA, Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin CJ (Malaya), Abdull Hamid Embong, Suriyadi Halim Omar FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 921 [FC]

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Appeal - Acquittal and discharge - Appeal against - Appeal by prosecution - Accused person charged for trafficking in dangerous drugs - Doubts on chemist report of drugs - Chemist not present when drugs were tested - Running of equipments in chemistry lab monitored by science officers - Whether tests carried out by chemist or science officers - Whether prosecution proved nature and weight of drugs - Whether ingredients of charge proved - Dangerous Drugs Act 1952, s. 39B(1)(a)
PP v. Abuchi Ben James
(Mohtarudin Baki, Tengku Maimun Tuan Mat, Zakaria Sam JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 1011 [CA]

Judge's notes of evidence - Record of proceedings - Discrepancies in notes of proceedings by trial judge with court recording transcription - Whether trial judge responsible for accuracy of notes of proceedings - Whether there was a misdirection by trial judge - Whether defence case prejudiced - Criminal Procedure Code, ss. 272, 272C & 272F
Abdol Rahim Zamani Mohammad Ali v. PP
(Balia Yusof Wahi, Rohana Yusuf, Tengku Maimun Tuan Mat JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 990 [CA]

EVIDENCE

Exhibits - Identity of exhibits - Offence of drug trafficking - Challenge as to identity of drugs - Allegation of discrepancy in weight and break in chain of evidence - Whether discrepancy in weight per se sufficient ground to discredit drug identity - Whether break in chain of evidence proven - Whether challenge as to identity of drugs misplaced
Abdol Rahim Zamani Mohammad Ali v. PP
(Balia Yusof Wahi, Rohana Yusuf, Tengku Maimun Tuan Mat JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 990 [CA]

HIRE PURCHASE

Hire purchase agreement - Implied condition - Defective goods - Motorcar purchased by hirer under hire purchase transaction defective - Whether purchaser could claim against vendor - Whether purchaser could only claim against lender - Whether protection afforded by Consumer Protection Act 1999 applied to goods under hire purchase - Consumer Protection Act 1999, ss. 3, 32, 47
Ong Siew Hwa v. UMW Toyota Motor Sdn Bhd
(Linton Albert, Rohana Yusuf, Vernon Ong Lam Kiat JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 1003 [CA]

LAND LAW

Indefeasibility of title and interests - Registered proprietor of land entered into Sale and Purchase Agreements ('SPAS') with two different sets of purchasers - New purchasers of land claimed to have better title than earlier purchasers - Earlier purchasers had entered into loan agreements and deeds of assignment with respondent bank - Whether respondent was equitable mortgagee - Whether original vendors of land had become bare trustees after collecting purchase price from earlier purchasers - Whether original vendors had capacity to enter into SPAs with new purchasers - Insufficient instrument - Whether transfer of title arose from void instrument - Whether registration was obtained by means of insufficient or void instrument - Whether appellant/new purchaser of land was bona fide purchaser for valuable consideration - Whether appellant's title was indefeasible - Failure to enter caveats - Whether respondent's failure to enter caveats fatal
Samuel Naik Siang Ting v. Public Bank Bhd
(Ahmad Maarop, Zainun Ali, Ramly Ali, Azahar Mohamed, Zaharah Ibrahim FCJJ) [2015] 8 CLJ 944 [FC]

Sale of land - Auction - Challenge as to valuation - Allegation that property sold at undervalue - Whether challenge should have been raised in foreclosure proceedings - Whether undervalue was so gross as to indicate fraud or want of proper standards of care
Seema Jaya Sdn Bhd & Anor v. CIMB Bank Bhd
(SM Komathy Suppiah JC) [2015] 8 CLJ 1047 [HC]

STATUTORY INTERPRETATION

Construction of statutes - Intention of Parliament - Whether latter limb to s. 121(2) of Companies Act 1965 applied to cheques - Whether cheques could be construed to be included in 'negotiable instruments' - Companies Act 1965, s. 121(2)
Yung Ing Ing v. Hunfara Construction Sdn Bhd
(Mohd Hishamudin Yunus, David Wong Dak Wah, Umi Kalthum Abdul Majid JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 1019 [CA]

WORDS AND PHRASES

'Cheque' - Companies Act 1965, s. 121(2) - Whether latter limb to s. 121(2) of Companies Act 1965 applied to cheques
Yung Ing Ing v. Hunfara Construction Sdn Bhd
(Mohd Hishamudin Yunus, David Wong Dak Wah, Umi Kalthum Abdul Majid JJCA) [2015] 8 CLJ 1019 [CA]


ARTICLES

LNS Article(s)

  1. RESTRAINT OF TRADE CLAUSES IN EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS* [Read excerpt]
    by: KALA ANANDARAJAH** [2015] 1 LNS(A) lxxxvii

  2. [2015] 1 LNS(A) lxxxvii
    logo
    SINGAPORE

    RESTRAINT OF TRADE CLAUSES IN EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS*
    by
    KALA ANANDARAJAH**

    Introduction

    Restraint of trade clauses are common in Singapore as in most other jurisdictions in a variety of different types of relationships. One of the most common relationships where one finds restraint of trade clauses in one form or another are in employment relationships. The restraint clauses range from non-competes during the period of the employment, which is typically fair, as well [as] non-competes which extend beyond. Non-compete clauses are typically drafted alongside non-solicitation clauses as well as preservation of confidentiality clauses.

    The restraint clauses have over time evolved with elaborate permutations with due consideration being provided on how such clauses are to be drafted. Yet, there is no absolute certainty as to when a particular restraint can be effective or otherwise. What is clear is that a restraint that applies whilst the employment relationship continues to subsist will generally be upheld, whilst that which seeks to impose barriers post the employment could be struck down, particularly where well crafted confidentiality clauses can effectively achieve the protection that an employer seeks.

    . . .

    * This article was originally published in the February 2012 issue of the Singapore Law Gazette (www.lawgazette.com.sg), the official publication of the Law Society of Singapore, published by LexisNexis. Reproduced with permission.

    ** Rajah & Tann LLP. E-mail: kala.anandarajah@rajahtann.com.


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  3. KEATING LECTURE 2015 "THE CONTRIBUTION OF CONSTRUCTION CASES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMON LAW"* [Read excerpt]
    by: LORD DYSON, MR [2015] 1 LNS(A) lxxxviii

  4. [2015] 1 LNS(A) lxxxviii
    logo
    UNITED KINGDOM

    KEATING LECTURE 2015
    "THE CONTRIBUTION OF CONSTRUCTION CASES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMON LAW"*

    by
    LORD DYSON, MR

    Introduction

    When I came to the Bar in 1968, construction law was regarded as a rather dull, specialist subject, in some respects hardly worthy of being considered as proper law at all. It was all about boring Scott Schedules and claims for damages for defects and disruption and delay claims, otherwise known in the trade as "buggeration claims". It was thought of as being all fact and no law. The judges who tried these cases were not even called judges. They bore the strange title of "Official Referees". Although the cases often involved very large sums of money (well in excess of the county court jurisdiction), these judges were not High Court Judges. After the 1971 reforms, they were senior circuit judges. Before that I believe that they were sui generis. They were addressed as "your honour", not "my lord". It is true that the courts in which they sat were in the Royal Courts of Justice. But Official Referees' cases appeared right at the bottom of the Daily Cause List almost as if they were an afterthought. And you needed an experienced orienteer to find the courts. You took a rickety lift up to the top floor of the West Block of the RCJ and then walked down a long corridor until you arrived at the courts. Hence the name "the Official Referees' Corridor".

    The first edition of Hudson Building and Engineering Contracts was published as long ago as in 1891. But I do not think that it was perceived as a serious specialist area of the law by many people until after WWII. The first edition of Keating’s Building Contracts was not published until 1955. I was in chambers with Donald from 1969 until 1986. He led me many times. His contribution to the development of Construction Law is well known. I regret that I never asked him why he became interested in the subject. Like me, he started at the Bar doing a bit of this and a bit of that.

    . . .

    * Lord Dyson MR, Assembly Hall, Church House Conference Centre (25 March 2015). Published With Kind Permission Of The Judicial Communications Office, Judiciary Of England And Wales (https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/announcements/ speech-by-master-of-the-rolls-keating-lecture-2015/).


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CLJ Article(s)

  1. INKUES KORONER DAN PROSES AUTOPSI DI MALAYSIA DARI PERSPEKTIF PERUNDANGAN [Read excerpt]
    by: NOORFAJRI ISMAIL*
    DR FARAH NINI DUSUKI**
    DR AHMAD AZAM MOHD SHARIFF***
    [2015] 8 CLJ(A) xiii

  2. [2015] 8 CLJ(A) xiii
    logo
    MALAYSIA

    INKUES KORONER DAN PROSES AUTOPSI DI MALAYSIA DARI PERSPEKTIF PERUNDANGAN
    by
    NOORFAJRI ISMAIL*
    DR FARAH NINI DUSUKI**
    DR AHMAD AZAM MOHD SHARIFF***

    Abstrak

    Pemeriksaan autopsi terhadap mayat merupakan proses penting bagi koroner yang menjalankan inkues berdasarkan Kanun Tatacara Jenayah. Namun demikian terdapat ketidakseragaman dalam amalan dan praktis prosedur inkues sehingga menimbulkan keraguan umum terutamanya pihak ahli keluarga si mati. Penulisan ini merungkai cabaran dan proses perundangan sebenar inkues serta autopsi. Ianya menegaskan bahawa terdapat neksus 'medico-legal' forensik yang memerlukan pemahaman umum.

    Kata kunci: Inkues koroner, post-mortem, prosedur siasatan kematian.

    Pendahuluan

    Prosedur bagi kes siasatan kematian di negara ini terkandung dalam Kanun Tatacara Jenayah ('KTJ')[1] dikendalikan oleh Majistret (kini bertaraf hakim kanan Mahkamah Sesyen) mengendalikan inkuiri kematian ('inkues') dengan mengambil alih kuasa dan peranan seorang koroner.[2] Inkues menyiasat sebab kematian secara menyeluruh yang tidak terhad kepada penentuan melalui pemeriksaan klinikal semata-mata.[3] Inkues merupakan satu prosiding khas di bawah Bahagian VIII, Bab XXXII KTJ. Ia memberikan perincian prosedur siasatan termasuk aspek peranan pihak-pihak terlibat iaitu pihak polis, pegawai perubatan kerajaan termasuk kuasa pendakwa raya.

     

    . . .

    * Fakulti Undang-Undang UKM

    ** Fakulti Undang-Undang UM

    *** Fakulti Undang-Undang UKM


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LEGISLATION HIGHLIGHTS

Principal Acts

Number Title In force from Repealing
ACT 771 Malaysian Aviation Commission Act 2015 Not Yet In Force -
ACT 770 Special Measures Against Terrorism In Foreign Countries Act 2015 15 June 2015 [PU(B) 250/2015] -
ACT 769 Prevention of Terrorism Act 2015 1 September 2015 [PU(B) 345/2015] -
ACT 768 Technologists and Technicians Act 2015 1 August 2015 [PU(B) 286/2015] -
ACT 767 Public Sector Home Financing Board Act 2015 1 July 2015 [PU(B) 265/2015] except Parts IV, V, VI and VIII; 24 August 2015 [PU(B) 335/2015] - Parts V and VI -

Amending Acts

Number Title In force from Principal/Amending Act No
ACT A1499 Capital Markets and Services (Amendment) Act 2015 15 September 2015 [PU(B) 369/2015] ACT 671
ACT A1498 Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act 2015 Not Yet In Force ACT 599
ACT A1497 Civil Aviation (Amendment) Act 2015 Not Yet In Force ACT 3
ACT A1496 Retirement Fund (Amendment) Act 2015 21 October 2015 [PU(B) 406/2015] ACT 662
ACT A1495 Police (Amendment) Act 2015 Not Yet In Force ACT 344

PU(A)

Number Title Date of Publication In force from Principal/ Amending Act No
PU(A) 255/2015 Money Services Business (Remittance Business) (Amendment) Regulations 2015 27 October 2015 28 October 2015 PU(A) 71/2012
PU(A) 254/2015 Water Services Industry (Bulk Water Supply Agreement) Rules 2015 26 October 2015 27 October 2015 ACT 655
PU(A) 253/2015 Statutory Bodies (Discipline and Surcharge) (Amendment of Second Schedule) Order 2015 23 October 2015 1 July 2015 ACT 605
PU(A) 252/2015 Public Officers (Conduct and Discipline) (Amendment) Regulations 2015 23 October 2015 1 July 2015 PU(A) 395/1993
PU(A) 251/2015 Customs Duties (Exemption) (Amendment) (No. 3) Order 2015 22 October 2015 22 October 2015 PU(A) 371/2013

PU(B)

Number Title Date of Publication In force from Principal/ Amending Act No
PU(B) 441/2015 Notice Under Subsection 70(2) 28 October 2015 1 December 2015 ACT 333
PU(B) 440/2015 Notice Regarding The Supplementary Electoral Roll For The Second Quarter of The Year 2015 (No. 3) That Has Been Certified 28 October 2015 27 October 2015 PU(A) 293/2002
PU(B) 439/2015 Appointment of Date of Coming Into Operation 28 October 2015 1 November 2015 ACT A1493
PU(B) 438/2015 Notice To Third Parties 28 October 2015 11 December 2015 ACT 613
PU(B) 437/2015 Notification of Values of Palm Kernel Under Section 12 28 October 2015 1 November 2015 to 30 November 2015 ACT 235

Legislation Alert

Updated

Act/Principal No. Title Amended by In force from Section amended
PU(A) 61/2010 Federal Roads (Private Management) (Collection of Tolls) (Kajang-Seremban Highway) Order 2010 PU(A) 246/2015 15 October 2015 Paragraph 2; First Schedule
PU(A) 231/2011 Federal Roads (Private Management) (Collection of Tolls) (Senai-Pasir Gudang-Desaru Expressway) Order 2011 PU(A) 242/2015 15 October 2015 Paragraph 2; First Schedule
ACT 158 Chemists Act 1975 ACT A1493 1 November 2015 [PU(B) 439/2015] Sections 2, 7, 9, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 23, 23A, 25, 27 and First Schedule
PU(A) 491/2012 Customs (Prohibition of Exports) Order 2012 PU(A) 227/2015 1 November 2015 Second Schedule
PU(A) 71/2012 Money Services Business (Remittance Business) Regulations 2012 PU(A) 255/2015 28 October 2015 Regulation 3

Revoked

Act/Principal No. Title Revoked by In force from
PU(A) 479/2012 Capital Markets and Services (Prescription of Capital Market Product) (Islamic Capital Market Product) Order 2012 ACT A1499 15 September 2015 [PU(B) 369/2015]
PU(A) 478/2012 Capital Markets and Services (Prescription of Islamic Securities) Order 2012 [Revoked By Act A1499] ACT A1499 15 September 2015 [PU(B) 369/2015]
PU(B) 487/2014 Appointment and Revocation of Appointment of Registrar of Fishermen's Associations PU(B) 322/2015 Appointment - 18 May 2015; Revocation of Appointment - 4 April 2015
PU(A) 13/2015 Federal Roads (East Coast Expressway-Phase 2) Order 2015 PU(A) 157/2015 14 July 2015
PU(B) 319/1999 Designation of Immigration Depot PU(B) 249/2015 15 June 2015